Once moraine material is pushed above water in front of a seasonally advancing terminus, it will effectively isolate the ice front from the ocean and thereby shut down the calving and submarine processes, allowing the glacier to advance unabated. Planets, Magnetospheric This divergence was visible at least 1 km upstream from the terminus. Although we do not discount seasonal changes in ice speed as contributing to seasonal oscillations of the terminus position, we believe that the threefold increase in seasonal submarine thermal erosion could also reasonably explain the seasonal changes in terminus through increased submarine melting and calving. And so we are presented with the difference between Science vs Religion, Hah… autocorrect incorrectly corrects “correct” into “correction”… March, and D.S. Part of Hubbard Glacier has been advancing into Disenchantment Bay for … August 28, 2011 – Summer Activities Solving the coupled equations (2)-equations (2)–(4) and attempting to fit w(t) to observations also revealed that sediment erosion rates in the moraine were quite slow (compared to typical values listed in WO97) and that these rates are not constant. The Hubbard Glacier is the most famous growing glacier. Not surprising – that part of NZ gets past 25C in summer which tends to have an effect on ice! Picture a river that is an average of 6 and a half miles wide and 1,200 feet deep. Outburst flood forecasting by monitoring glacier-dammed lake using satellite images of Karakoram Mountains, China. CAGW we’re waiting for you, The advance runs counter to so many thinning and retreating glaciers nearby in Alaska and around the world. Or dig a canal to bypass Gilbert Point? Hubbard Glacier, glacierresearch.org. It spans a whopping 76 miles long, 1,200 feet deep, 6 to 7 miles wide and 25 to 30 stories tall at its face. Moraine dam is shown in Figures 7a and 7b. “Recent Updates The advancement or retreat of a glacier’s terminus depends on the snowfall that melts down or flows from its catchment basin. Of course. (/sarc). The difference between MLLW and mean sea level is about 2.2 m, estimated from the tide record at nearby Yakutat. The captain ofour ship, the Celebrity Millenium was great (a wonderful sense of humour). SPAIN Glaciers growing in Spain (Pyrinees) 10 Jan 11 - El glaciar del Infierno (glacier of Hell) has advanced. If Hubbard were to advance until it reached this state with the current equilibrium line altitude (ELA), the advance would continue down Disenchantment Bay for over 30 km, and would last for over 1000 years at the current advance rate of ∼30 m yr−1. Ice flow in this region is much slower than at the centerline, averaging about 5–6 m d−1 during the 1990s (R. M. Krimmel, unpublished data). These concerns all seem so silly. It's possible that the glacier could close the fjord by later this summer if the current rate speeds up, says Harris. Hubbard Glacier is nicknamed the “galloping glacier” because of its fairly rapid (for a glacier) descent toward Disenchantment Bay. Variations in Alaska tidewater glacier frontal ablation, 1985–2013. November 13, 2020 . “This is all to be expected as when glaciers melt, they speed up and so this is why its advancing and getting thicker…”. This advance has now brought the terminus close to Gilbert Point at the entrance to 60‐km‐long Russell Fjord (Figure 2). Although the 2002 closure was also well publicized and well documented by photos and additional observations, it has only been cursorily described in the scientific literature [Trabant et al., 2003a, 2003b]. CRAZY BIG AVALANCHE @ 2:03 !! Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Glacier Variations at Xinqingfeng and Malan Ice Caps in the Inner Tibetan Plateau Since 1970. Harbor seals ride the floes, basking in the sun; orca whales prowl just around the ice barrier, waiting for an unwary seal to come out to where the whales' sonar can reach. (a) Portion of NOAA Chart 16761 showing channel as it looked in 1977–1978, depths in fathoms. in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), Journal of Geophysical Research Post processing against a base station in Yakutat ensured positional accuracy of ±1 m or better. Yes, the glacier is gliding downhill on a lubricating film of liquid water, presumably from melted ice. Since measurements began in 1895, Alaska’s Hubbard Glacier has been thickening and steadily advancing into Disenchantment Bay. “Projections”, so loved by CAGW, could be abbreviated to PCP’s or “probably crap predictions”. I’ll throw in just one example of broken science peer review and how it manifests itself as well to support my comment further, for good measure… The 2008/09 surge of central Yulinchuan glacier, northern Tibetan Plateau, as monitored by remote sensing. If ice thickness was on the order of 100 to 200 m in that area, local thickening rates could have been of the order of 0.35–0.70 m d−1. Surface ice velocities near Gilbert Point determined from vertical aerial photos: (a) 7 June to 7 July, (b) 7 July to 14 August, (c) 14–16 August, and (d) 16–23 August. Because of inherent dangers associated with a calving face, we remained at least 100 m or farther from terminus ice cliffs NOS surveys were even more conservative, keeping at least 0.25 km from calving faces. Similar seasonal temperature changes of seawater correlated with seasonal changes in terminus position have been observed at LeConte Glacier [Motyka et al., 2003], at Columbia Glacier [Walters et al., 1988], and at other Alaskan fjords and bays with tidewater glaciers [e.g., Hooge and Hooge, 2002]. With the barrier to basal sliding removed, the terminus ice immediately responded to these new conditions and quickly accelerated. Holding up “peer-review” as evidence of global warming is now just a disguised appeal to authority argument. [2003a] also summarized the state of the Hubbard terminus as of 2001. Now picture that entire river completely frozen, year round. We would also like to thank following individuals for valuable field assistance: Jackie Lott (USNPS), By Valentine, Ned Rozell, and Michael Hekkers. Currently the ELA is located in a fairly steep area. [17] Because of limited resources, we restricted our own surveys to regions of Disenchantment Bay and Russell Fjord near Gilbert Point, the site of past and potentially future closures. http://www.wgms.ch/gmbb.html, Gary, I think WGMS just changed their web address. Global temperature is “resting” (see Monty python dead parrot sketch). and Chemical Oceanography, Physical These surveys serendipitously overlapped with the 2002 damming of Russell Fjord. They don’t seem to include some of the largest advancing glaciers in the world. The total age of the glacier is approximately 400 years. I cannot verify that this was an official growth rate. With the terminus impeded and no longer free to simply slide forward, sliding was substantially reduced. The image below, acquired on July 13, 2002 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on Landsat 7, shows the glacier the last time that it sealed the fjord. At Hubbard Glacier, water temperatures can fluctuate from as low as 3°C in early spring to as much as 10°C in late summer depending on water depth (Figure 10). [53] We believe the key to the next closure is halting the process of submarine melting and mechanical calving as discussed above. Billy, Warren, et al, Care to discuss any aspect in particular? It's possible that the glacier could close the fjord by later this summer if the current rate speeds up, says Harris. Weather, not Climate. Glacial outburst flood sediments within Disenchantment Bay, Alaska: Implications of recognizing marine jökulhlaup deposits in the stratigraphic record. Discharge increased as erosion accelerated, with the moraine dam completely gone by 17:15 h. The inflection in the discharge curve marks an acceleration in discharge as water flow and ice calving began eroding the ice cliff, widening the outburst channel to 135 m. Discharge peaked at 55,000 m3 s−1 at about midnight with the lake draining to sea level by midday 15 August (Figures 5 and 6). The Beauty of Blue Ice, The Power of White Thunder. *How big is the Hubbard Glacier? This shoal moraine succeeded in isolating the terminus from ocean water and channel currents, substantially reducing or eliminating submarine melting and calving losses, allowing the fjord to be closed. These closures and subsequent floods are among the most significant glaciological events in North America in recent decades. There is special Automated Laser ranging system set up on the nearby island (Haenke Island) to monitor the proximity of the terminus of Hubbard to Gilbert Point. Variations of erosion rates on shorter timescale cannot be expected to be resolved with this method. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Physics, Solar It’s 10 years later, so where is the terminus now? just because there are enviro-wackos, that has nothing to do with the hundreds of professional Climate Scientists doing research and publishing. [15] Acquiring bathymetric data became a priority of our investigation in the aftermath of the 2002 event. U.S. Geological Survey (2002, June 18) Advancing Glacier Coming Close to Blocking Fiord Near Yakutat, Alaska. Spring temperatures in EDB on 25 April 2003 were considerably cooler, averaging 5.4°C and show little change with depth. So you have the cojones to say that peer-reviewed science and all the worlds institutions of Science, which conclude AGW, are institutions of Religion, and YOU, an avowed rejecter of their findings, represent SCIENCE? I think changing the last word follows their meme better considering how skeptics are viewed. This paper focuses on the 2002 event, when a strong spring advance pushed shallow submarine proglacial sediments against Gilbert Point, closing off Russell Fjord by late June. Had the glacier at Gilbert Point advanced as rapidly as elsewhere, the next closure would have occurred within less then a decade, as Trabant et al. Well, alright then. The Hubbard Glacier is actually growing not receding as many other glaciers. and Paleomagnetism, History of Comparison of lake level rise 1986 versus 2002 from the USGS water level gauge in Russell Fjord (modified from [, The 2002 outburst hydrograph (solid curves). Der Hubbard-Gletscher ist ein Gletscher in der Eliaskette im US-Bundesstaat Alaska und dem Yukon-Territorium Kanadas.. We also obtained the NOS 1999 survey data (http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/dataexplorer/) surrounding Gilbert Point and derived a bathymetric baseline to compare to post‐2002 outburst data. [25] By July, speeds decelerated by a factor of two or more throughout the study area: 5–6 m d−1 into EDB and 1.5 m d−1 toward Gilbert Point (Figure 7b). I know French in Canada was 16th century French, although over the last two generations, modern French is being taught. Continuation of the glacier's expansion is unlikely to change in the near future as a result of further climate change. Antarctica has approximately 95% of all the freshwater ice in the entire globe…. Glaciological and marine geological controls on terminus dynamics of Hubbard Glacier, southeast Alaska. Well, it’s proof of warming, of course : in this polar area it doesn’t meld ice, but it makes ice more fluid and advance quicker (instead of sticking to mountain flanks), hence the grow. The advance of Perito Moreno Glacier, a lacustrine calving glacier in Argentina, has periodically blocked a large tributary arm of the lake with dam failures there producing outburst floods that are reported to have released 3 to 4 km3 of water [Skvarca and Naruse, 2006; Stueffer et al., 2007]. *Is the Hubbard Glacier growing? Physics, Astrophysics and Astronomy, Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Integrated hydrologic and hydrochemical observations of Hidden Creek Lake jökulhlaups, Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, Rapid wastage of Alaska glaciers and their contribution to rising sea level, Holocene history of Hubbard Glacier in Yakutat Bay and Russell Fiord, southern Alaska, Jökulhlaups in Iceland: Prediction, characteristics, and simulation, Subglacial lakes and jõkulhlaups in Iceland, Flotation and retreat of a lake‐calving terminus, Mendenhall Glacier, southeast Alaska, Calving speed of Alaska tidewater glaciers, with application to Columbia Glacier, The marine record of the Russell Fiord outburst flood, Alaska, USA, The surges of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, U. S. A., and their connection to climate and mass balance, Glacier calving: A numerical model of forces in the calving‐speed–water‐depth relation, Fiord oceanographic processes in Glacier Bay, Alaska, Flux of debris transported by ice at three Alaskan tidewater glaciers, Photogrammetric data set, 1957–2000, and bathymetric measurements for Columbia Glacier, Alaska, Episodic reactivation of large‐scale push moraines in front of the advancing Taku Glacier, Alaska, Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise, Advance of Hubbard Glacier and closure of Russell Fiord, Alaska: Environmental effects and hazards in the Yakutat area, Geologic Studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey During 1987. “Understanding Hubbard’s behavior is scientifically interesting,” Stearns said, “but it also has immediate consequences for the town of Yakutat.”. Small Bodies, Solar Systems Stearns cautions, however, that these closure dates are “projections based on our current observations, and should be viewed with skepticism.”. Cheers And isn’t Antarctica itself a giant glacier? Seasonal fluctuations in the advance of a tidewater glacier and potential causes: Hubbard Glacier, Alaska, USA. November 06, 2020 . What a lie! [4] In this paper we describe Hubbard Glacier; discuss the formation of the 2002 dam and the subsequent outburst flood; analyze the changes in ice flow patterns caused by this event; show changes in bathymetry in and around the point of dam formation; present a discharge model for the outburst flood; and finally discuss how channel depth and warm ocean temperatures may be preventing the glacier from readvancing and closing Russell Fjord since 2002. If this were retreating, I could google “Hubbard glacier,” and the first 50 or so article hits would be duplicate commentaries on the press release about global warming/climate change. [7] A sparse set of radio echo soundings (RES) in 1986–1988 showed the glacier to be about 360 m thick along the centerline with the bed at 180 m bsl at a distance of 1 km upstream from the terminus [Trabant et al., 1991]. ↑National Park Service: Hubbard Glacier: Geology in Action! The persistence of this sill despite outburst floods suggests that it is an erosion‐resistant bedrock reef. But why in New Orleans? Figure 4 (10 August 2002) captures the full extent of the moraine and ice dam prior to the outburst. Those consequences provoked her to investigate what controls the terminus position and its advance, and to estimate when the fjord might become permanently blocked. Hubbard advanced to within 70 m of Gilbert Point in July and showed signs of a more advanced position within Disenchantment Bay and Russell Fjord than in previous years. Geophysics, Mathematical A lot. The last of these has implications for the future behavior of the glacier. Our examination of the 2002 event builds on these earlier studies and relies heavily on information gathered by a number of government agencies and private individuals as well as our own postoutburst investigations. The post outburst ice flow regime overall appears to have resumed its predam pattern, with velocity gradients and directions similar to Figure 7a. The water was crystal clear like glass with many small pieces of ice all around. The mainstream media seems to have somehow missed this. Alaska’s Hubbard Glacier is advancing moving toward Gilbert Point near Yakutat at an average of seven feet per day. Traveling by sea, cruisers experience the awe-inspiring sight of the towering frozen river of blue ice. We addressed this by smoothing the record with a Gaussian of half‐width 40 min. The glaciers they include in their total mass balances are very limited. 10 May 09 – This from climatologist Cliff Harris of the Coeur d’Alene Press. The new flow barrier caused ice divergence to both sides of Gilbert Point and a zone of compression behind the ice front with strain rates of about −3.5 × 10−3 d−1. Gilbert Point – The Automated Laser ranging system at Gilbert Point was replaced in late August with a new updated system. Validation of high-resolution GRACE mascon estimates of glacier mass changes in the St Elias Mountains, Alaska, USA, using aircraft laser altimetry. Outbursts of the magnitude seen in the past from Russell Fjord also constitute a severe hazard to navigation in the bay. Awaiting the new discovery of the properties of ice being made more flowy by warming. As the summer season comes to an end and the Hubbard Glacier terminus has begun its seasonal retreat, we are busy putting the finishing touches on an exciting season of activity. Photo by Bruce Molnia, USGS. (Speaking of which, I visited the glaciers in NZ, which are retreating alarmingly. Feeble brains or dishonesty–take your pick. The captain ofour ship, the Celebrity Millenium was great (a wonderful sense of humour). In 1986, the glacier crossed this shallow region, closing off Russell Fjord in June [Mayo, 1988]. Yellow lines indicate the location of the terminus on August 1, 1978, and on July 13, 2002. The flow vectors show strong N–S shear and prominent E–W compression toward Gilbert Point. Alaska tidewater glacier terminus positions, 1948–2012. The manuscript greatly benefited by reviews from N. Iverson, J. Walder, M. Funk, and H. Björnsson. Since 2002 the annually averaged terminus position at Gilbert Point has remained nearly constant at about 350 m from Gilbert Point, despite the fact that the advance into Disenchantment Bay has continued at ∼ 30 m yr−1. At Gilbert Point (Figure 2) it significantly affected upstream ice flow and stability of the glacier dam itself. At the current time plans to repair the system are tenative. The Hubbard Glacier had better get on board! Composition and Structure, Atmospheric Hydraulic modeling of glacial dam‐break floods on the West Branch of the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania. [1] Hubbard Glacier, the largest temperate tidewater glacier in the world, has been advancing since 1895 AD and has now twice dammed 60‐km‐long Russell Fjord, once in 1986 and more recently in 2002. Alaska's Hubbard Glacier advancing 7 feet per day! Glaciers are slow-moving rivers of ice that usually grow in winter and shrink in summer. Hubbard Glacier: Growing not Shrinking - See 659 traveler reviews, 1,105 candid photos, and great deals for Alaska, at Tripadvisor. @Boulder Skeptic The moraine has been squeezed up against Gilbert Point, increasing in elevation to 14 m asl. [41] As the moraine moved forward and began colliding with Gilbert Point, the boundary conditions for upstream ice changed appreciably. The image above, acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8, shows Hubbard Glacier on July 22, 2014.The image shows a close-up of the glacier’s terminus on that day. A handful of Alaska glaciers are advancing and a few of those are getting bigger, but those are the exceptions. Properties of Rocks, Computational (3) What drives the seasonal changes in terminus position? The image above, acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8, shows Hubbard Glacier on July 22, 2014. You could monitor it in real time. In contrast, it has now advanced 2.5 km since 1895 [Trabant et al., 2003a], a period when glaciers in the surrounding region have been losing mass, some of them at increasing rates [Arendt et al., 2002; Larsen et al., 2007]. While glaciers in southern Alaska were advancing during the Little Ice Age, Hubbard Glacier underwent a dramatic retreat [Barclay et al., 2001]. Glaciologists who have studied Alaska's ice for years say the opposite is true. The advance runs counter to so many thinning and retreating glaciers nearby in Alaska and around the world. It’s also been very active in the past, having had two major surges in the past 30 years. [30] Late summer ocean temperatures in EDB were warm and similar for 2002–2005, and showed a positive gradient with depth, increasing from 6.5°C near the surface to as much as 10.4°C at depths of 50 m (Figure 10). Source: CDApress.com. This long‐term advance has a strong seasonal cycle with advance in winter to spring and retreat in summer to fall with oscillations as large as 100 to 200 m [Trabant et al., 1991; Ritchie et al., 2006]. Characterizing the surge behavior of Alakesayi Glacier in the West Kunlun Shan, Northwestern Tibetan Plateau, from remote-sensing data between 2013 and 2018. Anyhow, for all the warnings about “proof of climate change” you look at where it was in 1850. Off the coast of Yakutat—200 miles NW of Juneau—Hubbard is certainly gigantic: it's more than six miles wide where it meets the ocean. Really awesome! The Hubbard Glacier is actually growing not receding as many other glaciers. The findings, recently accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research, explain how the mechanics at the terminus override the influence of other climate fluctuations. Learn about our remote access options, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. Modelling outburst floods from moraine-dammed glacial lakes. Hubbard is one of the few glaciers that is actually growing. Terminus and moraine boundaries were derived from all photo sets. THE HUBBARD GLACIER CONTINUES ITS ALARMING RETREAT – MORE EVIDENCE OF VERY-SCARY GLOBAL WARMING! Our post 2002 outburst bathymetry showed the existence of a shallow erosion‐resistant sill west of Gilbert Point (Figure 8). I had it drummed into my head first in school and second when my 12 year old daughters memorized a couple of plays. This was the time of year (up until August) that it seemed to advance on a regular yearly basis. At the current rate of sediment infilling, it may take another ten years before waters shallow to depths equivalent to the pre‐2002 event. Tidal and seasonal variations in calving flux observed with passive seismology. It has been growing and advancing over the past hundred years. [40] The rapidity of ice flow adjustment to changing conditions at Gilbert Point is striking. The picture is current, the yellow lines are historical. Off the coast of Yakutat—200 miles NW of Juneau—Hubbard is certainly gigantic: it's more than six miles wide where it meets the ocean. The 1986 event was the subject of several articles [Seitz et al., 1986; Mayo, 1988, 1989; Trabant et al., 1991; Krimmel and Trabant, 1992] and received widespread attention in the press. Roger Don’t worry about what they call you.” – Andrew Breitbart | read more, “…the world’s most viewed climate website” Instead we use an approximation to the observed widening of the channel, i.e., an initial blowout to a 60 m width and then a linear increase in B at the rate of 7 m h−1. Stearns cautions, however, that these closure dates are “projections based on our current observations, and should be viewed with skepticism.” The first bathymetry of the Gilbert Point area after the 1986 outburst was made 2 years later in July 1988 [Trabant et al., 1991]. [57] The annual average terminus position at Gilbert Point has remained relatively constant since 2002 despite the fact that the rest of the terminus continues to advance at rates of ∼30 m yr−1. … Read more. Any chance you could provide a list of ‘decent journals’? The water was crystal clear like glass with many small pieces of ice all around. The greater uncertainties in the last two periods reflect the short time interval between observations. Hubbard Glacier remains an ongoing study of calving glacier dynamics for the scientific community. The glacier advanced 40 m toward Gilbert Point during May and early June, pushing submarine moraine sediments forward with shoaling visible along a 0.5 km arc of the terminus (Figure 3a). A simple model of the outburst indicates that moraine erosion rates were almost an order of magnitude slower than those reported by Walder and Costa [1996] for other earthen dams. Hubbard Glacier . Thank Karen M . Photo by Bill Lucey, U.S. Forest Service. The thing has been going backwards from the moment pakeha looked at it, and is no faster or slower now. The glacier was then 190 m from Gilbert Point. And would it be better if gays were reinforced instead? However, a future surge, if powerful enough, could drive the terminus across even a deep water channel. It must be melting more at the top and running downhill, plus the extra humidity in the super-warm air causes more snow on the glacier. Hubbard Glacier, one of the few growing glaciers in Alaska, advances toward Gilbert Point north of Yakutat in summer 2009. The positive glacier-wide massbalance of Hubbard Glacier is directly measurable as changes in the overall surface alti-tude (thickness).Thesechangeswere measuredusinganair-borne laser altimeter system that has been described by Echelmeyer and others (1996).The resulting surface profiles havedatapointsevery1.5malong theflightpath,andaver- Additional evidence for seasonal warming at these depths comes from Reeburgh et al. Norwegian glaciers. ________________________________________ We have not measured tidal currents in the channel but our qualitative observations during bathymetry surveys suggest that they can reach several m s −1 at maximum flood and ebb. Advancing Glacier Coming Close to Blocking Fiord Near Yakutat, Alaska. Increasing atmospheric temperatures can not be the cause of this, and the cause is very likely to be global cloud reductions, and hence increased surface sunlight, which will have a much greater effect on south facing slopes than north facing, and at lower latitudes versus higher latitudes. Oh dear, how sad, never mind! I believe proper form by the stasi is to use a battering ram for knocking and flash bag grenades to neutralize babies. How to Scare and Deceive without Lying: JPL Cries Wolf about Polar Glacial Melt, Claim: Svalbard glaciers lost their protective buffer in the mid-1980s and have been melting ever since, Glacier National Park quietly removed ‘Gone by 2020’ signs in 2019—Update, They've lost the argument: Petition to ban 'climate deniers' from Facebook, http://rhymeafterrhyme.net/remember-the-nineties-whatever-happened-to-global-warming/, http://www.rogerfromnewzealand.wordpress.com, http://coalitionoftheswilling.net/?p=4484, http://wattsupwiththat.com/2015/06/22/the-hubbard-glacier-defies-climate-change-continues-to-grow/#comment-1969657, http://rsgisias.crrel.usace.army.mil/hubbard/glaciers.html, http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2015/05/how-a-grad-student-uncovered-a-huge-fraud.html, http://www.svalbardglaciers.org/surging_glaciers_other_glaciers.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Br%C3%BCggen_Glacier, http://moonbattery.com/graphics/obama-francis-on-board.jpg, Massachusetts AG Tells Bloomberg Group of Plan to Use its Attorneys to Enforce Paris Climate Treaty, Climategate: Another Anniversary (never forget …. Perhaps I shouldn’t rush through an article on the way out the door. – Fred Pearce The Climate Files: We believe that this sill acted as a sediment trap following 1986 and sediment accumulation behind the trap helped gradually fill the channel (see 1999 bathymetry, Figure 8b). Water temperature can also play a role during an outburst flood from a glacier‐dammed lake because water above 0°C can melt ice and widen the outflow channel [Walder and Costa, 1996]. The current advance of Hubbard Glacier is driven by its very high ratio of accumulation to total area (AAR) of 0.95, and we consider the glacier to be in the advance phase of the so‐called tidewater glacier cycle [Post, 1975; Meier and Post, 1987; Post and Motyka, 1995; Trabant et al., 2003a]. Now about 66 km (41 mi) in length, it is the longest glacier in the southern hemisphere outside of Antarctica. In addition, the Gilbert Point terminus has advanced 100 m or more in the spring, only to retreat during the summer, well before the gap could be breached. However, a 1‐km‐long, 300‐m‐wide submerged sill to the west of Gilbert Point appears on NOS 1999 bathymetry and persists on all of our post‐2002 outburst bathymetry (Figure 8). [1991] reported near terminus ice thickness of about 140 m with the bed ∼85 m bsl. Knowledge of water depths is also essential for assessing stability of ice dams because ice flotation can trigger subglacial release of jökulhlaups [Björnsson, 1992, 2002; Roberts, 2005]. Given that tidal corrections in the vicinity of Gilbert Point have likely changed somewhat over time since the 1999 NOS survey, overall uncertainties of our water depth surveys are about ±1.5 m. [18] Some studies indicate that ocean water temperatures can play a significant role in the mass balance and stability of a tidewater terminus through submarine melting [e.g., Walters et al., 1988; Motyka et al., 2003]. Three cubic kilometers of water were released within 30 hours, with peak discharge reaching 55,000 m3 s−1 24 hours after the flood began. No trends in severe weather. Processes, Information Temporal and spatial changes in water depth reflect deposition or erosion of proglacial sediments, which in turn can lead to increased or decreased terminus stability. The 1986 outburst stripped the sediments from Gilbert Point to depths exceeding 35 m [Trabant et al., 1991] and redeposited them in Disenchantment Bay [Cowen et al., 1996], appreciably deepening the tidal channel and widening it to 300 m. Channel width was still about 300 to 400 m in 1999 and water depths averaged about 25 m. [9] Despite predictions of imminent glacier readvance and damming [Trabant et al., 1991], the next closure did not occur until 2002. And don’t even get me started on their average weight! Glacier - Glacier - Heat or energy balance: The mass balance and the temperature variations of a glacier are determined in part by the heat energy received from or lost to the external environment—an exchange that takes place almost entirely at the upper surface. Water rise soon outpaced the rise in moraine height and breached the moraine dam. In fact, there was no anomalously high rate of advance anywhere else along the terminus in 2002 that would suggest a surge. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. /sarc See http://wattsupwiththat.com/2015/06/22/the-hubbard-glacier-defies-climate-change-continues-to-grow/#comment-1969657, Actually, it’s either – it depends where you’re from , http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/skeptic, Yes, Ken. As far as your assertions on peer review are concerned. This is consistent with results from WC96 who described outburst events lasting several days. Goodbye to a raffish glacier scientist. @evanmjones Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: Growing and Advancing in Spite of Global Climate Change and the 1986 and 2002 Russell Lake Outburst Floods U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 001-03 January 2003 by D.C. Trabant, R.S. It’s a magnificent sight in any case. Hubbard Glacier update: another closure of Russell Fiord in the making?. [8] This paper focuses on the region near Gilbert Point where two closures and outbursts have already occurred and where continued glacier advance threatens further closures of 60‐km‐long Russell Fjord (Figure 2). St. Helens 15 May 08 – Inside the Mount St. Helens volcano "an unexpected phenomenon is taking place: a glacier is growing." Processes in Geophysics, Atmospheric Thus we propose that future closures will depend in part on continued sedimentation into the channel at Gilbert Point. NASA image of the Day - The Advance of Hubbard Glacier The reef west of Gilbert Point probably helped to trap these sediments. Anthony is co-author of peer reviewed papers. David C. Finnegan/CRREL We attribute these anomalies and the fact that 16 years elapsed between closures to submarine melting and mechanical calving driven by seasonal changes in water temperature and to a deep water channel. We derived a discharge curve as shown in Figure 6 by differencing the water level data during the outburst period, using methods and fjord hypsometry described by Mayo [1989]. But since it is advancing…there are a few articles but mostly stuff about cruises. “It may be the only growing glacier in America - or maybe the world. I think they could. – Jonathon Moseley, American Thinker, “…flashy (apparently widely distributed)”– Michael E. Mann, Material on this website is copyright © 2006-2019, by Anthony Watts, and may not be stored or archived separately, rebroadcast, or republished without written permission. [10] Our chronology of the 2002 closure and outburst of Russell “Lake” is largely based on photos and observations obtained by multiple governmental agencies and private individuals that were monitoring the situation (http://www.fs.fed.us/r10/tongass/hubbard; http://ak.water.usgs.gov/glaciology/hubbard/), as well as our own observations. Isn’t that how climate-science-by-press-release works? [42] The flow divergence increased flux east of Gilbert Point, which led to ice advance there and ice almost crossed the gap in August (Figures 4 and 7b). We take the characteristic length to be ∼1 km, the approximate distance from the sill to Osier Island where the channel is the narrowest and currents strongest, and where past closures have occurred (Figure 8). Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. The subsequent outburst in October 1986 is the largest outburst flood on record, achieving nearly twice the highest peak flow of the Mississippi River [Mayo, 1989]. He said that’s all from climate change and then looked all spiritual in his eyes. Oh dear! But there's one image released this week by NASA that shows one Alaskan glacier that might actually be growing.
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